Freedom in Footwear – Shoe Varieties have Little to No Results on Harm Charges


Trainers for stopping decrease limb working accidents in adults

Relph N, Greaves H, Armstrong R, Prior TD, Spencer S, Griffiths IB, Dey P, Langley B. Cochrane Database of Systematic Critiques. 2022 August. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013368.pub2.

Take-House Message

Prescribing trainers primarily based on foot sort and common footwear sort (e.g., movement management, impartial, stability, minimalist) doesn’t scale back lower-limb working accidents.


Most working accidents happen within the decrease limbs, and 20-80% of runners will maintain an harm. Usually, to scale back harm charges, runners are prescribed particular sneakers primarily based on their foot sort primarily based on the concept the shoe could optimize the foot place whereas working. Nevertheless, it stays unclear if trainers forestall harm.

Research Aim

The authors performed a scientific overview to evaluate whether or not or not trainers forestall lower-limb accidents in a wide range of grownup runners.


Authors recognized randomized (or quasi-randomized) managed trials of runners (novice to elite ranges) or army personnel that in contrast trainers or studied prescribed trainers primarily based on foot sort versus non-prescribed sneakers. The principle outcomes have been the variety of runners who sustained a lower-limb working harm and the variety of lower-limb working accidents. Secondary outcomes included footwear satisfaction, hostile occasions (akin to blisters), and anybody needing hospital admission or surgical procedure. Authors discovered 12 research that match the inclusion standards, resulting in a complete evaluation of 11,240 runners.


The forms of sneakers used have been 1) impartial/cushioned (meant to scale back load upon foot-strike), 2) motion-control (meant to lower foot movement throughout stance), 3) stability (offers movement management and cushioning), and 4) minimalist (meant to imitate barefoot working with little assistive gadgets). The authors discovered no clear variations in accidents between 1) impartial/cushioned and minimalist sneakers (5 research, 766 individuals), 2) movement management and impartial/cushioned sneakers (2 research, 421 individuals), and three) gentle and exhausting sneakers (2 research, 1,095 individuals). Nevertheless, the authors discovered proof that runners with a physique mass better than 71.4 kg had a better danger of harm when sporting minimalist sneakers as an alternative of impartial/cushioned sneakers. Runners sporting prescribed (primarily based on foot construction) or non-prescribed sneakers had related charges of harm, with reasonable certainty (3 research, 7,203 individuals). Runners had related footwear satisfaction between impartial and minimalist sneakers.


General, trainers could not alter a runner’s danger for lower-limb working accidents. Nevertheless, pronators reported ache whereas sporting movement management sneakers in comparison with impartial or stability sneakers, and runners with impartial ft reported extra ache in movement management sneakers than in impartial sneakers. These findings have been primarily based on low ranges of proof and may very well be on account of every examine utilizing completely different definitions of shoe varieties. Nevertheless, we should always interpret all outcomes cautiously due to the small pattern sizes. Moreover, the individuals have been leisure runners and army personnel. Working footwear researchers ought to have normal definitions for forms of footwear, and large-scale trials are wanted to know if prescribing trainers primarily based on foot construction and kind can scale back lower-limb working accidents.

Scientific Implication

Regardless of widespread promoting and beliefs, clinicians ought to clarify to runners that particular trainers could not lower harm charges. It could be extra useful to advocate that runners purchase snug trainers.

Questions for Dialogue

What sorts of recommendation have you ever given athletes looking for trainers? Have you ever familiarized your self with shoe varieties to supply recommendation?

Associated Posts

  1. Cushion the Blow: Softer Midsole Footwear Cut back Harm Danger amongst Leisure Runners
  2. Which Footwear Defend These Who Defend Us?
  3. Pronated and Impartial Wins the Race…or at Least Retains the Runners in it

Written by Jennifer Xu
Reviewed by Jeffrey Driban


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